Survival Eating

Food is not just a source of energy and sustenance, but a comfort item as well. When you are hungry, morale goes down and chances of survival dwindle.  There will be several opportunities to find food after the supermarkets close, you just need to know where to look and what tools to have.

The first thing you need to know is that meat will only take you only so far.  If you read Meriwether Lewis’s journals from theirFinding Food after TEOTWAWKI exploration; the men still felt hungry although they were eating several pounds of meat per day.  You can eat 10 rabbits a day and still “starve” as rabbit lacks everything except protein for your body’s survival.


Trapping is the most feasible option to maintain a steady supply of fresh meat for the “table”.  There are several trapps and many Trapping for Foodmore that can be improvised.  Many people have trapped animals, even if it was just setting a mouse trap to get rid of a pest. The most important thing to prepare for using traps to supply food is to educate oneself on the habits and lifestyles of the animals in your area.  If you must travel to your secure location, remember to research and study the areas for the areas you will need to travel through.   My experiences are mostly in the Midwest and Southeastern US, so some tips or items may not be as suitable for a Western environment but I will try and offer tips based on what I have read or been told by trappers/outdoors-men in those areas.

Animal tracks are a sure sign that something is or has been in the area. Tracks can be the obvious footprints in the sand or dirt but can also be as subtle as the scratches on a tree trunk or small holes dug into the ground where your prey was hunting their own meal. Several books are available for studying the footprints of the animals so you can know what animal you are targeting is.  I’d prefer NOT to trap a skunk or opossum unless they are my only choice.  Time and energy spent on setting traps for the wrong animal are time and energy you will not get back.  Also, setting a rat trap or 110 body grip trap for a raccoon or ground hog is wasted time, as you will not be using the proper tools.

There are several different brands and sizes of store bought traps available on the market. The 3 major types are:

1) Foothold traps – These come in a variety of sizes and even styles.  There are single jaws (most common) and double jaws; toothed (think of the old bear traps) or smooth jaw; long spring or coil spring.  The long spring has single or double long springs which are made by “folding” a piece of spring metal over and then pinching it to allow the trap to be set.  Tension is supplied by the animal stepping on the “pan” and releasing the lock, which allows the long spring to expand back to its “U” shape and thus applies pressure holding the trapped animal. Coil spring traps use coil springs either in a double or 4 coil set up.  The more coils, the stronger the traps strength to hold an animal, but too much strength can break a bone and thus allow the animal to tear off its foot and escape (thus the legend was born of animals “chewing” their leg off to escape a trap). Trap sizes increase with the “number”.  The added weight of the long springs is useful for drowning rig set ups, but coil spring traps are smaller for packing.

2)  Body grip (commonly referred to as connibear)- These traps are square in shape and they normally kill the prey upon capture. They utilize 1 or 2 springs and a single trigger/lock mechanism.  They come in 3 common sizes, 110, 220, 330, size grows with the number.  Some manufacturers have “middle sizes as well, but they are not as common. When selecting these traps, read the description and choose the trap by the opening size (110 = 7inch by 7 inch opening; normally) and what you will need for the animals in your area for planning purposes.  I use 110’s for squirrel, muskrat, rabbit, etc for planning purposes, 220 for raccoon, ground hog, fox, etc; and 330 for beaver, coyote, really big raccoons, etc.  Some reading this will wonder why I included foxes and coyotes but if you are secure in your homestead and something raids the chicken coop or garden plot; you may have to trap for varmint control as well as food.

3) Snares – These handy gems can be bought already made or obtained by buying the different components and making custom Snare trapping for foodsized snares for game not normally trapped in today’s normal living conditions.  Snares are designed to catch an animal as it walks through the hoop of the snare and then being strangled. You can fix these to small saplings or branches being bent and anchored to a stake with a trigger device to spring back to their original position and creating a very fast choke or even breaking the neck of the prey. Most modern snares are made from aircraft cable of 5/32 or 3/16 inch diameter. You can also use heavier gauge as long as it is pliable and you customize the hardware for the thicker cable. Snares can also be improvised from a variety of materials, fishing line being a natural choice. I carry braided line with 60# test or higher for such purposes and also to use for limb lines. Regular sewing thread or light weight (2-4#) fishing line is useful for securing the snare to brush or fencing to keep its shape and stay in place once set.   Snares made from 6-10# fishing line works well for birds. For hiking in parts of Alaska and Canada (possibly other locations), it is required by law that you have a couple snares in your pack and the knowledge to use them.

These are the main types of animal traps used for trapping fur-bearers for their pelts. They can add immense possibilities to the prepper for putting food on the table if and when the need arises.  Improvised traps are also very important; not only will they be used if caught in an emergency where you don’t have your kit, i.e. an aircraft crash since we can’t carry our kits as a carry on.

Deadfalls are probably the best known and easiest to construct improvised trap.  These are created by using an object or Trapping for Survivalobjects that weigh enough to kill the intended target by crushing it.  Rocks, trees, branches, cast off equipment or materials (bricks, sandbags, vehicle parts, etc) can all be used for the weight. You balance the weight and attach the bait to a trigger, a type 4 trigger is the most common but takes practice to make, and when the animal pulls on the bait, it causes the weight to fall and crush it.  You can also use a manual trigger by attacking a string or rope to the brace and pulling the brace out manually once the target enters the “kill zone.”  This can be practiced by using a laundry basket and catching birds in the back yard, great training and practice for the little ones and it will teach them patience and the need to be quiet and still.  The basket or a bucket can also be used in a survival situation to catch small animals in the same manner, just know that the target will still be alive and will need to be approached with care.

Pitfalls or punji pits can also be used. These are simple in design but require a lot of work to make. By digging a hole deep enough and covering it so the target does not see it, they can be lured to the pit or dig it along a trail they travel. The pit must be deep enough and/or lined so the target cannot climb or jump out.  By adding punji stake (sharpened sticks) to the trap, you will injure, maim or kill whatever falls into the trap.  This will help ensure the animal stays but can also become dangerous to unsuspecting people falling into the pit.  These are also dangerous to livestock or pets, so use common sense and care when utilizing these traps.

Fish traps are also a valuable commodity to use for gathering food. These are normally constructed on site, using natural Fish Trappingmaterials combined with brought items.  By placing obstacles, sticks, rocks, boards, etc, in the waterway, you funnel the fish swimming through at a certain point.  At this point, place a net and anything swimming through will be captured.  You can also use fencing [poultry netting (chicken wire) works best for its pliability and small mesh size).  Form the fencing into a cylindrical shape and fasten it together with cable ties, rope, tie wire, etc.  After gauging the opening size, cut more of the fencing used to form a “funnel” to fit into the opening(s); if only 1 funnel is used, you must form a “wall” on the opposite end to secure the trap.  The funnel needs to extend into the trap about 1/8 – ¼ the length of the cylinder and reduce in size down to an opening that will allow the fish to swim in but not so big they can swim out extremely easy.  The idea is they will have room to swim out, but by have the funnel opening centered in the trap, most fish will miss the opening and not swim out.  You may lose some, but the majority of any fish swimming in will be there when you check your traps.  You can add bait by attaching small bags filled with bait to the fencing.  I like attaching mine to the bottom to get the fish to swim away from the opening of the funnel. A practice trap can be made by cutting a 2 liter pop (soda) bottle off just after it gets to its full size.  By turning this around and inserting it into the body of the bottle with the pour spout inside the bottle, you now have a minnow trap to collect bait. Punch small holes through the bottom of the bottle and sides to allow water to flow through it.  I use a small rod of re-bar to anchor this to the creek bed.  Secure the cut off portion with glue is best, but if the cut is made cleanly it can be held with friction.  Place the opening to the upstream side, so water pressure will build and help hold the top in the bottle body. This will also give a visual of what a bigger trap made from fencing should look like.   This type of trap will also catch crabs, lobster, crawdads and even some small marine mammals.

Traps can more than pay for themselves on the return of food and even pelts for clothing, pot holders, blankets, etc in a survival situation. There are several books on the subject written by people with a lot more experience than me.  If possible and legal to do so, practice trapping animals before the need arises and your learning curve means whether you and your family eat or not. You can get clips to hold body grip traps in the “set” position on the side of a tree.  Bait the trigger wires with corn or nutmeats, even peanut butter, and squirrels will come to feast on your offering and roasted squirrel or stew is on the menu.  The clips are sold via trapper supply houses for marten and fisher trappers.  The clips can also be improvised out of small pieces of conduit or pipe.  The spring on the body grip trap can have a rope tied to it and secured to a branch so it will swing the trap and your catch away from the tree to keep scavengers from easily stealing your meal.  I carry a few premade snares, two 110 sized body grip traps and 1 #4, four coil trap in my rucksack or in my MOLLE vest.  I also carry heavy weight (60# +) braided fishing line to improvise snares.  I carry lighter weight fishing line for snares for birds or to use as sewing thread to repair clothes or gear. Remember to get repair parts for any traps you have and acquire the skill to repair them.


There are several articles written, as well as countless books, on the subject of fishing. I will only briefly touch on the subject.  I Catching Fish for Survivalrecommend using limb lines in a survival fishing situation. You use a heavy weight line and attach this to a very sturdy branch overhanging or very near the water source.  I prefer one with a little flexibility to allow for the fish to fight without breaking or ripping the hook from its mouth. Limb lines can be utilized using normal store bought hooks or improvising natural materials into something to hold the fish. “Skewer hooks” can be made easily and very quickly, even by a child. You take a piece of wood and sharpen both ends to a dull point.  You can rough up the “barrel” of the wood to help hold the bait or even tie the bait on with string.  You attach the line by tying it around the barrel in the center of the piece of wood.  When the fish swallows the bait and the skewer, it will lodge in its throat or guts, depending on size of fish.  When you pull the line, it will cause the skewer to turn sideways and thus make an extremely strong hold on the fish allowing you to haul it in.  If using limb lines in waters with a large turtle population, they can be used to catch turtles as well, but I would recommend using steel leaders to help keep the turtles from biting the line off.

Treble hooks work extremely well, but until used for a true survival situation, they are normally illegal, so check your local laws.  You can also cut pantyhose down, tie it around the bait and use it to help keep fish from stealing the bait.  Safety pins and needles can also be used to adapt something from its intended purpose to use as a makeshift hook.  These will not be barbed, so extra care is needed to maintain control over your fish once caught.  I would also recommend buying and using cane poles even during routine fishing outings.  I love my spin cast and bait cast reels coupled with a good rod, but if they break, a branch more closely resembles a cane pole than a $300 rod and reel combo.  Throw nets or casting nets are also valuable in obtaining fish.  These do require practice, but the return can be very rewarding and the difference between a full belly and an empty one. I’d even try and obtain topo maps of the lakes, rivers, streams, etc for the area you will be when the need arises. This will give you bottom structure and locations for optimum limb line locations.


Several articles have been written and posted on hunting.  This is the method most people plan on obtaining their meat in a Survival Riflesurvival situation.  Study the animals in your chosen area and learn all you can about their habits, food sources, activity cycles (nocturnal or diurnal), and home (burrows, nests, meadow, water, lodge (muskrat and beaver), etc).  Choose a weapon that will easily take the game animal but not ruin the meat; you do not want to hunt a rabbit with a .308 or a 12 gauge slug.  A .22 long Rifle will take most animals, even deer, with proper shot placement. Using a .22 LR are illegal to take certain game, so read game laws before using in a non survival situation.  If I was able to choose just 1 higher powered rifle, I would choose a .308 Win./7.62mm.  They are available on an AR platform for those who want the self loader or even the battle proven M14 (Springfield’s M1A1).  A bolt action would be fine or even a pump.  The reason I would choose the .308 is several fold; 1)  They are a common caliber and ammunition will be available; 2)  They have much more range and power over the .223/5.56mm, I can hunt medium game like antelope and deer with a .308 but would NOT want to tackle a moose, elk or bear with a .223; 3)  The added firepower will allow me to keep the 2-legged varmints farther out of their preferred range and in the ranges I practiced at before I had to use it.  Optics are also a requirement in my opinion.  A good survival rifle will have open iron sights as a backup, as scopes get broken, but optics allow for a more accurate shot placement when the adage of “every shot counts” is truly “gospel” in a survival situation.  Ammunition can be in very short supply and harvesting that game means you and yours eat is not the time to try shots that you can brag about, the only bragging that needs done will be when you carry in that nice venison haunch.

Blackpowder weapons will be an excellent choice for a survival weapon if you also gain the knowledge to make your own Survival Gunblackpowder and cast your own lead balls. I would recommend a flintlock over percussion cap. Flint can be picked up in just about every corner of the US. By casting your own lead balls and making blackpowder, you can have a long term firearm to hunt with and conserve your center fire ammunition for real emergencies and self defense. Muzzleloading weapons act and shoot differently than center fire weapons; flintlocks can have a “lag” between the time you pull the trigger and the time the powder actually ignites to propel the ball down the barrel. If you choose to use this type of survival tool, please get one as early as possible and practice to learn the intricacies of this traditional food gatherer.

Archery equipment, especially the knowledge on how to build self bows such as the Native Americans, would be a great asset. They are quiet, can take a multitude of game, can be replaced (if capable of making them) and arrows can be made also. Their use will save ammunition for self defense and extremely dangerous game (bears, mountain lions, wolves, feral dogs, etc).

Do not underestimate the power and ability of a slingshot to put dinner on the table.  It is easy to find ammunition; any rock will do and are perfect for the younger hunters.  They are quiet and capable hunters, especially when using lead round balls. They are modestly priced and found at almost every discount and department store. You can “store” vast amounts ammo for it and nobody be the wiser; just do some landscaping and use river rock instead of mulch.

Regardless of equipment and tactics, make sure you get as close as possible and take the sure shot.  Those nice antlers only mean you can make another tool, while does and yearlings usually have more tender meat and are an easier quarry.  Always choose the sure shot.  Other uncommon tools for hunting include, spears, air guns, boomerangs throwing sticks, and even a bolo. The biggest thing is to practice with whatever method(s) you choose so as to be an expert in their use as there is NO substitution for knowledge about your intended game animal(s).


Gathering wild edibles will greatly enhance your meals and chance of survival. Several books are written and a must have at Foraging for Foodleast in the survival retreat or Bug Out Location (BOL).  I would also find a small one to keep in your Bug Out Bag (BOB) like the book from  Judy of the Woods.  Sassafras root makes a good tea and even chewing the leaves will cause saliva to be generated to help reduce thirst or just give you peace of mind from food, similar to chewing gum. Cattails are one of nature’s greatest survival gifts. You can eat the young shoots, the roots are like a potato, and even the seed (the part on top that gets to looking like a dusty corn cob) is a great flour additive, added to stew or can be eaten on its own.  Some other plants to learn and know are: Solomon’s Seal, May Apple, wild berries, any nut tree, pine needles (for tea), pine cones for pine nuts (place a “closed” pine cone near a fire and they will “open” to obtain the nuts/seeds inside), birch sap (can be made into a great syrup for your acorn pancakes), wild mint, swamp cabbage palm in the southern swamps, fish eggs, mushrooms, etc. These items are edible in whole or in part and will provide extra flavor and much needed calories in an emergency.  Please read books or find someone who can give precise instructions on edible plants and try them before it becomes necessary.

Remember, all bird eggs are edible; many are small but they will provide calories and much needed nutrients.  Eggs dipped in wax can be held up to a month without refrigeration or spoilage. That little extra bird feed and the bird houses while times are good; could be a bountiful investment for when times get bad.  I would also recommend books on wild herbs to help with the seasoning of food and natural medicine once the pharmacy is looted.


Gardening has been covered in depth, so I will only add to the obvious benefit of growing food, the garden plot will bring in Survival Gardeningwild game to trap or hunt.  Also, planting fruit trees in advance will supply fresh fruit to the diet and animals will travel long distance to eat a sweet dessert like an apple.  This will bring the game to you and thus reduce risk and visibility by having to venture further and further from your secure location.  I would also think about establishing a pond for fish farming and if the space is available, digging deep ditches for irrigation and drawing animals for water.  Dams can be used to control water depth.

Also, if able, a greenhouse will allow year round growing. You can add bee hives to the greenhouse and the bees will pollinate the crops and give you a natural sweetener. Honey also has many medicinal uses and when the going gets rough and many comfort items are no longer available, who wouldn’t want something sweet to help boost morale?


Raising livestock is also important, but does require land to use as pasture.  Goats would be a prime animal, they will supply Raising Chickens for Survival meat, milk and depending on the breed, wool to make cloth from.  This all takes more knowledge and land, which some of us may or may not have.  Poultry will help eat bugs in the garden, supply meat and eggs, act as an alarm system (geese and guineas), eat weeds from the garden (geese), and can supply down for quilts if the situation turns into a truly long term event.

These are but suggestions to stimulate ideas and comments from others to bring a more balanced and as close to full thought process on the subject of feeding ourselves in the worst of times.  Everyone’s location and access to land and other resources will dictate how we must personalize any ideas to meet our needs, abilities, and resources; not all can afford to dig ditches and a pond or have the land to do so.  I hope I have helped some or maybe caused others to think in a direction they had not thought of.  My purpose is to give basics to those who are starting, maybe add some insight to those who have not been able to experience some of these skills, and caused the experienced to share their ideas or knowledge in comments of things they have actually tried or even heard of so the group gains the knowledge to try or research tricks or skill sets that will help them survive.


I have eaten ground hog, raccoon, snake, fish, alligator, squirrel, rabbit, beaver, muskrat, crawdad, crabs, lobster, wild boar, Eating Rats for Survival deer, moose, elk, bear and even a rat to cover most of my vittles in the past.  Those who hunt, try carrying your day-pack and other gear (where legal) while doing so. This will allow you to see how it affects your shooting and whether the game animal will be spooked by what you have.  Sound is your enemy, so tie everything down secure.   When squirrel hunting, I wear my MOLLE vest, carry my emergency survival gear and a sidearm (especially handy because of the feral dog problem). I hunt with either a 22 LR rifle (normal) or pellet gun.  This allows me to continually improve my ability to move quietly through the woods while wearing the extra gear I will have when the situation(s) we prep for become a reality.  Also, if you have them, take the kids; the younger the better.  They will learn to move quietly and be still, get satisfaction in knowing they helped “earn” their dinner and it creates a bond not easily broken.  If you find it difficult to be patient with them when only a successful hunt is on the line; how will you react when the very meal you MUST have is cost?  Each child is different and will handle the experience differently. You must decide when they are ready to see an animal harvested and then again when they are ready to witness the butchering process.  I prefer skinning and gutting my game in the field, innards stink when in your garbage at home, but in the survival situation, they become bait for traps or fishing.  Animal stomachs, turned inside out and washed very thoroughly, make excellent pouches and/or water bags.  Learn to skin the game as cleanly and whole as possible to save the pelt.  Rabbit fur is soft and works well for mittens, ear muffs, etc; ground hog hide is extremely tough and makes good leather lace.

Stay Alert, Stay Alive

Resources and recommended authors and sites:

Mantrapping by Ragnar Benson
Ragnar’s 10 Best Traps by Ragnar Benson
Fox Trapping Methods – Russ Carman
Trapping North American Furbearers– Stanley Hawbaker
Completion Line Fox Trapping – Tom Miranda
The Trapper's Bible– Dale Martin
Long Term Survival in the Coming Dark Age – James Ballou
North America Plant Foraging Guide – Judy of the Woods


Cherokee By Blood (recipes)
Website on making Pemmican
Paladin Press – books on many topics
Simple Green Living– website and store catering to self sufficiency and homesteading.
Mother Earth News
Hoosier Trapper Supply– trapping and hunting supplies
Blue Ridge Outdoor Supply– trapping supplies
F&T Trapping Supply– trapping supplies
Mountain Man Trapping Supply-trapping supplies
Cumberland’s Northwest trapper’s Supply– trapping supplies
Sullivan’s Line– trapping supplies and forum

Photos By:
Pete Van Vleet
Mike Jone$$$
Joel Abroad
The Knowles Gallery
Jaymi Heimbuch
Jolly Mandolin
Sergey Yeliseev

Written by Joel Jefferson

Joel is one of the original founders of After college, he joined the USMC where he served as an (0302) Marine Infantry Officer. Joel is an avid outdoorsman and spends much of his free time in the mountains. Joel’s hobby is researching survival gear & weapons as well as prepping. Read his full interview here. Read more of Joel's articles.

90 thoughts on “Survival Eating”

  1. Don't know about eating beaver or snake. Had lots of weird stuff including deer hearts but general don't eat trash animals like beaver, opossum, racoon, etc… If I had one rifle it would be .22 LR for small game.

    That is a sweet looking rifle in the picture. What type of setup is that one?

    • The Army taught me to eat snakes and some other 'interesting' things. Not bad, actually, but not much like chicken in my not so humble opinion.

    • IMO, beaver tail is amazing when cooked well. it is a high calorie source, and hits like a rock. Roast on a stick at broiling temp till the skin is bubbling then cut open your juicy buttery melty beaver tail and feast. 🙂

      • Really? I've heard that alot, but I trap beaver, and It just tasted like a greasy slimey goo. I use the fat for wood preservative and gun stocks. I like the rest though. It is a little bland but if you hold it over a smokey fire it is pretty good.

    • Beaver is actually a very good source of meat. They are very clean, not a scavenger. The 22 LR is a great choice and I have several to pick from.

    • Beaver aren't really trash animals, they are very selective on the tree bark they eat. And the taste is very bland. The more nocturnal they are (that depends on pressure from predators) the lighter the meat color is also. I don't trap anthing I won't eat.

  2. Sewer Rat may taste like pumpkin pie but I'd never know because……(see Pulp Fiction)

    Thanks for the great article!!!

    • LOL… yeah, but you'd be amazed at what you'll eat when the need to stay alive outweighs the negative connotations from our normal lifestyle. Grasshoppers and grubs have never been my first choice for a meal either, but they do provide calories and nutrients.

  3. A great overview and summary. I would mention the danger of disease from harvested animals. There have been discussions elsewhere about those risks but they bear keeping in mind.

    The other thing is the possibility of getting caught in the trap you are trying to set. Having the jaws of a trap close on your hand may make it impossible to open the trap. Most traps I've seen (admittedly a limited set) require two hands to open. Larger traps could break an arm or hand, pin you to a particular location, or (even smaller traps) ruin you entire day. Even broken fingers can be extremely serious post TSHTF.

    I particularly appreciate the practice before you need it attitude – if you haven't practiced the skill you don't have it. A recommendation for the novice hunter. There is a book, "The Perfect Shot North America by Craig Boddington… that gives pictorial information on correct shot placement for America's large game. There are similar books for each continent so you can choose your environment. Not knowing where to shoot your proposed supper can at best result in an injured animal; at worse that wounded moose may decide to use you as a stomping mat.

    • Great call out on the diseases. Some things I take for granted since it has been part of my life since I was a youngster. Hare fever can be bad news and why I only hunt rabbits after a couple of good frosts to help kill off the sick ones. There have also been cases of the plague from lynx and bobcat hunters. Hand sanitizer is a great commodity and just washing your hands afterwards. Some of the guys I know wear surgical gloves when skinning their game and fur bearers to help minimize the risk.

    • Great article. Bricks (500 rounds) of .22 can be purchased for $20. They come in a variety of round types including bird shot.
      Great points Capt B you should clearly mark all traps. Animals can't read but people can so a sign is better than trail marking tape alone.
      The library and TV have ample subject matter about hunting. The books show you how to clean the animal… Something the hunting shows seldom show.
      Personally, I know the tropics offer a much better variety of food year round. Carbs are hard to come by in cold climates.
      A treble hook or star hook attached to the end of a piece of bamboo can be very effective in catching game in and out of the water. A small scoop net and a spear round out the gear. Night fishing and hunting has fed man for thousands of years. Solar rechargeable flashlights can be worth more than their weight in gold.
      A spool of 250 lb. test, nylon coated, wire leader and 2 bags of swedge sleeves cost $20 and can make 30 12inch noose snares… Yes, 30 really tough snares for $20.

      • I know people who have made hoops of barbed wire on the end of a pole to drag animals from their burrows and dens. It's highly illegal during non survival situations, so care must be used. You can normally pull a small tuft of fur from the animal before actually going for the capture so as to find out what you are getting ready to deal with ( I'd hate to pull a skunk out unawares).

        • I've never been close to a skunk and not known it. I liked the article. Although one can practice while staying within regulations, like by taking a picture instead of the shot, all hunting and game regulations are out the window if the SHTF. With the economy going into the crapper again it looks like it will be sooner than later.

          • I agree, with the current situations and power plays being committed, we could be in for a very nasty future. I used the skunk for a figurative mental picture…lol.

  4. You mention using a connibear trap – which work very well.

    Make certain you are very educated with your secific trap and leave a sign to its location if others are near. The power it has to snap a beaver in two is what it will do to your arm if you are careless setting one up or someone's leg if they do not know a trap is in the area. BIG risk for your dogs if you are trapping beaver because the dog will go right to the beaver run and sniff around the place.

  5. Nicely done article. I was particularly happy to see someone finally mention black powder rifles as a (more sustainable) long term hunting weapon – especially if you can learn to cast your own shot and produce the powder. You also mentioned another weapon that is often overlooked. In my opinion, the slingshot is a good weapon for small game when you desire something quiet and small. It may also be a decent personal protection weapon (David and Goliath anyone?) when a handgun isn't an option. I've been considering getting a slingshot to put in my get home bag for when I'm at school. I drive 35 miles one way to my college – much of the drive is very rural. I cannot have my handgun on campus but a slingshot is more easily concealed and innocuous looking. It would definitely come in handy if I ever had hike back home in due to a SHTF event.

    • Blackpowder is probably my favorite form of firearm. I like the ways of old and am planning a period trek with the kit of a Colonial Longhunter, aka, Daniel Boone. I think we have it "easy" with our modern gear, so want to try with what was available in the 18th century. I recommend living history as a means to learn self sufficiency. "Buckskinning" or the medieval reenacting is a great hobby to practice lost skills, get the whole family involved and practice without looking like a "lunatic" to the neighbors.

      • I like my black powder stuff as well. Mine is all cartridge based but I agree; having the skills of a Boone or Carson will keep you in good stead in the tall and uncut. Since I'm not as good as guys like Bridger, I tend to think having enough modern technology along to prevent the need for the search and rescue folks to come find me is a good idea. That said, living like the pioneers is a great way to learn the skills needed to stay alive.

        • I agree. Joel will probably send you an email before long going along those very lines…lol. I like it that you can teach without being obvious. I have seen your comments along the lines of your "hobbies" and do some of the same things. I carry the 45 LC in rifle and pistol for my "modern" hunting. I just figure I was born at least 120 years after I should have been.

          • Thank you for the compliment, sir. There is 'magic' in the black powder. A friends wife decided that at 16 their son should at least learn how to shoot. Took him to the range with a bunch of stuff. The kid fell in love with .45LC black powder. I thought I'd lost my lever gun to him. In a couple of trips we blew through a couple of hundred rounds of BP .45. The grin on his face when the gun went off was priceless and said all we needed to know about how he felt about shooting black powder. He shot the modern stuff but always wanted to go back to the cowboy guns. Pure magic.

  6. great article. i do all these things including spearing fish ..i once shocked my brother by spearing three fish before he caught one. using a sapling cut in the woods next to the stream..LOL my brother had to beg for some fish that night for dinner .. i told him he needed to hone his skills up and gave him a piece of fish …he knows not to doubt skills of someone who has been there

    • I spear fish also and enjoy it. I even have a speargun and pole spear for SCUBA. Gigging frogs is a nice night time activity and frog legs make a fine meal. Your being able to improvise a spear with the natural materials gives you an edge and thank you for sharing your success and skills that were overlooked.

      • you are quite welcome. school starts on monday..i teach every week skills that need to be learned, how to's everything from shelter building, to hypothermia , water distillation, to first aid and field surgery happy hunting

  7. I definitely agree on the .22 as "#1 survival rifle" and the pellet gun (and slingshot) – you can pick up multi-pump .177 cal rifles and pistols that will keep you fed when a large-caliber bullet might provide you with a bit of pre-chopped meat. (shoot a squirrel with a .308 and see how much s left for dinner)

    • "Barking" squirrels is a lost art and one I wouldn't want to worry about doing in a survival situation. Air guns are great for small game and quiet normally. I like the 22 rifles and pistols for the range and accuracy, effective on all but the biggest game and the ability to carry hundreds of rounds without breaking my back (or the bank). I have a 22 rifle for every member of my family, even the one I am waiting on to get big enough to use it (she is only 4). I'll be buying a "Chipmunk" rifle this year for her, so hoping to start her earlier than the others.

  8. Awesome article! Very good overview.
    I would like to add the blowgun as a suggested weapon to learn. Its quiet, cheap to buy, even cheaper to make yourself, you can make darts for it relatively easy, it can be a walking stick/escrima stick and looks harmless with the quiver stashed away.

    • I had a blow gun when I was young but did not have great success with it. I could hit the target, but the wire darts weren't very effective for me. I know others who use them and love them, so it's a viable option. Have you used one effectively and what type of darts do you use?

      • Yes. I use bamboo darts that I make myself. I buy a package of bamboo skewers from the grocery store. You can get like 100 for 99 cents. I put paper cones on the end that are cut to snugly fit the pipe. Then I put a layer of superglue on the paper to help with durability and re-useability. Is that a word? Ha ha. I also use old coat hangers for wire darts. Put them in the little electricians caps (cant think of what they are called at the moment), and they work well.

        Accuracy on the home-made blow guns leave a little to be desired, but they certainly work.

  9. Very good article! I would highly recommend that people practice making traps because it can be very tricky…tried making some small ones in my backyard and it took much longer than I thought. They are simple but take the right touch. I would like to add to more possibilities. For urban situations, dumpster diving is another option…gross i know but in the first few days for trash cans that are at food stores and restaurants where the man rubbish is food you could score food on top that is actually very clean and perfectly fine to eat. Secondly, one very easy way to trap would be to carry mouse/rat traps. Minimal energy to set up and very effective. Rat traps would be best because they are big enough to catch fairly big game like squirrals and rabbits. Just food for thought.

    • Rat traps are great. They can also be used to improvise some weapons and alarms (they "snap" loudly when set off. They are normally found economically at trapper conventions and I use Victor rat traps personally.

    • I feel like a total idiot for not thinking of the rat traps!!! On a rabbit trail through a briar patch…brilliant. I appreciate the advice. Thanks.

  10. Regulator5 you have a VERY well written, and EXTREMELY informative article here; I enjoyed reading it and you even managed to help me learn a couple things! Thank you! You are absolutely correct about learning and practicing new skills before you need to rely on them, personally I don't think that this can be stressed enough. I always have to laugh when I read/hear about folks who plan to rely on skills they have never tried and don't understand to survive… The perfect example is the folks who buy an extremely expensive "sniper-rifle" rifle that IS capable of taking 1k yard shots… However, they don't practice, don't know how to compensate for variables/"dial-in", and some don't know how to perform BASIC maintenance. Yet somehow they think that because they spent X-thousands of dollars on said rifle, because other people have done it before(skill & training makes no difference in their minds) and the rifles "bells & whistles" will make up for their shortcomings behind the trigger! How sadly mistaken they will be!!

    • I would also like to point out that there is a lot you can learn from older folks that have been in the outdoors all their lives, their knowledge might prove to be a huge source of invaluable information! For example, I learned several things from my father and grandfathers which you would likely never see in any survival manual that have been passed down through the generations from father to son. One of the most interesting, at least in my opinion, is a use for the outer hulls of black walnuts. They contain a chemical which will remove oxygen from water, it does take quite a bit of them to kill fish, and it's not something that would be feasible for a large body of water, but you can use it to obtain an easy source of calories/protein/fat if you can find a small pool that holds fish/crustaceans.

      • This is a task you could assign a group of kids (supervised by an adult of course) that will keep them busy for a while, let them contribute to the groups survival and teach them at the same time. Here in VA we have an ideal environment for utilizing this little trick, because you can find black walnut trees near tidal waterways. I tried this in small tidal pools and it works very well. A couple important things- the water cannot be moving, or the chemical will wash away, and you typically only get smaller game. However, even though it typically results in smaller quarry, they can be a source of calories, or used as bait for catching something a bit more substantial.

  11. Does anyone know why the site will only let you post a small paragraph at a time now? Or is this an issue that is exclusive to me?

    Also, is anyone else having a difficult time trying to fit what they would like to contribute in such a small space???

    • My posts are cut down as well, so we are unique together…lol. You can also use hardwood ashes for the "fishing". Old timers are a great resource for skills and tactics. I learned most of my skills from my Dad and his friends. I agree about the "preppers" who think because they read a book and bought the most expensive rifle on the market, that they are ready for hard times. I can almost picture them shooting the deer and then trying to figure out how they cook it because they don't have a knife or the knowledge to dress and skin it.
      I appreciate your comments, along with all the others, and by our simple dialogue, we should be able to at least keep us on the right track and put newcomers on the correct path. I have read countless books on the outdoor realm and even with tasks that were similiar to those I already knew, it took time and practice to get the new techniques down and I'll never be an "expert"; at best a journeyman and that would be pushing it in my opinion.

  12. Excellent article! If you are not on foot, a Hav-a-Hart type live trap is very useful as well. They are very easy to use and you can cull unwanted animals very easily. The cast net is an excellent survival tool. It will cach fish even when they're not biting a hook. It can be also used for smaller birds as well. Disclaimer: check local game laws prior to using!

    • Good idea with the catch live trap. I use cage/box traps for muskrat during normal trapping season and have the materials to build them, but they are not easily packed. The live traps are nice when trapping barns and urban areas where pets can pose a problem.

  13. Some informative organizations with magazine subscriptions are: National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association; National Rifle Association; North American Hunting Club; North American Fishing Club; BASS; Furtakers of America; National Trappers Association;; American Mountain Men, to name a few. These offer periodicals and how-to books for their respective areas. NRA has a great book called the "Hunter's Bible" which covers habitats, habits, tracks and field dressing guides for hunters. These organizations will offer seminars and the ability to link with like minded individuals to learn crafts and skills which are becoming a lost art. If possible and they fit your plans and life, join and learn as much as possible from those who do the chores.As Chef said, buying an expensive rifle will only give you a tool to use and not guarantee success or the ability to turn the harvested animal into dinner without the required knowledge and skills to finish the chore.

  14. Nice Article. This is my first post since having an account hooked up with, but i have been reading here for a long time. Me and 3 friends are going on a survival Expedition this fall (late October) We range in age from 15-18 years old. We are all smart and well rounded teens. We have done a good deal of research and are more than sure we can pull this off. I actually introduced them into the Idea of the Bug out Bag, as i have one, packed and ready, myself. We all have a good idea of what is to come and want to stay ahead of the game, and make sure the skills we have learned work, and that we can use them properly. This article really helped us out because it simply expanded our thinking on traps and snares. Lucky for us, the date we chose fits into our small game season, and in our area, we have more than enough squirrels. Out of our 4 people, 2 are avid hunters, 1 is an epic fisher man and long term boy scout, 2 of us are good with the snares, and having a garden my whole life, i know some gathering skills and what plant is actually a poisonous weed. Speaking of gardening, I have Heirloom seeds for sale! Hit me up @ [email protected] for details. This article did us good, along with the rest of the articles on the site, and i very much so appreciate the authors. thank you all very much. If you are curious about how our expedition turns out, we are going to try to each put journals into our BOBs and take many notes and journal how each day goes and we intend to put them on a site/blog. i will comment much later with a URL if your interested for that, by chance. For those of you that do not know what the Heirloom seeds are, research them. they are the seeds that God intended us to use, they have an anti bug protections system and are much healthier as they are non GMO and best of all, you can use them for more than one year. we have them cheep, hit me up. God Bless, Everyone.
    -We cant afford to wipe with $100 bills, but knowledge is free, study up.

    • I commend you and your friends for learning skills that will be useful the rest of your life. Now the important thing is to introduce some of your friends to this way of life and they can do the same. You get the idea. There is a lot of good information sites out there, this being one of the better ones IMHO.

      • That's what we are working toward. 🙂 Thankfully we all have our heads of strait and know that the people that are ready are more likely to survive. Our Expedition is boot camp, if you will. Training to become better and to know what we are going to need to have, to survive in our area and to better ourselves. We plan to be leaders in tough times, someone has to take charge. Any good leader has the know how, the experience, and is respectable. I'm not saying I am, or have all of that, that would be ignorant, but I would rather be over qualified than not to be able to do anything. As it is mentioned in the Teen survival Article, teens can not always get a hold of some stuff, legally, like guns, (not saying guns are everything, but they are helpful) and we may not have the resources to get the top notch gear, but we can at-least grasp the knowledge. That is my aim, knowledge. I am having my team read up on many of the articles here, else where, as well as watching some various videos. I plan to have everyone able to survive solo, if need be, but staying strong as a unit for now. Your only as strong as your weakest link, and as the guy heading our group up, I will not stand to have our chain be made of tin, but Titanium.
        -We cant afford to wipe with $100 bills, but knowledge is free, study up. God Bless.
        -I really hope i did not sound ignorant.

        • Good luck and Godspeed on your endeavors. I truly hope it works well for you and you are able to learn and gain valuable experience. On trapping for small game, be sure to check local laws and stay legal.

    • Knowledge is only power when it can be demonstarted in some cases….just because I know how something is done because "I read about it"…is a far cry from doing that task in the dark, in the snow, after a horrific event…even just practicing in the dark, in the snow is difficult…I am sure you get the idea….lol I am happy that you and your friends are planning a trip…I usually call up a friend or two a day before and we drive and then…Bam we gotta exit the vehicle, no cell phones work and we have to live on what we got till the end of the weekend…it drives a few friends nuts because they never know if we are going to the concert or if we are going to end up stranded somewhere…lol

      • Haha, that is Awesome. I would enjoy being some of those friends of yours. You are also very correct.

        My uncle recently challenged us to tape a rock onto the bottom on one of our feet, then put a mitten on one of our hands simulating a sprained ankle and a broken hand. This would show us a lot of disadvantages that could come from being in a car wreck in the middle of nowhere. Try that the next time you and your buds are "stranded." It would most likely teach them a lot also. 🙂 Thank you all for your comments and tips, they are very useful!
        -We cant afford to wipe with $100 bills, but knowledge is free, study up. God Bless.

  15. I think another option for food would be foraging in trash cans or dumpster diving in an urban situation. While it may not be ideal, you'd be surprised how much food people throw away. My dad always tells us about how his father had to scrounge around for food (this was around WWII, I come from a heavily German family) and an apple core, if they were lucky enough to find one, would be dinner.

    • You are correct about dumpsters can be a good source for food stuffs while society still exists, but if we have a total collapse I do not believe they will be as fulfilling. If people no longer go to restaurants to eat or have the left overs to throw away, then that option will cease to exist as well. Just my 2 cents.

    • I don't know if you are familiar with a show called "Bizzar Foods", but the host highlighted a group in Seatle WA that was using "dumpster diving" to feed homeless/hungry people in the city. Some of the food they used was obtained from companies who set-aside items they would typically thro-out for them to go through and select stuff thats still good, but for the most part the ingredients they use come from dumpsters around the city. According to the show they feed between 75-150 people, once a week (if memory serves me). Just shows how much waste there is these days! At least it's getting put to good use and not just trashed!

      • All the restaurants have to throw away food that has been sitting too long. All those fast food burgers and meals would probably taste pretty good after eating grasshoppers and such for a few days.

  16. I don't know how all states do it, but in Missouri the Conservation Dept. has guide pamplets on edible plants in the area. I have picked up the one on mushrooms and need to go get the one on edible greens. These were free and provide alot of info on all types with warnings on what to avoid. It also came with color pictures and great descriptions, plus prefered growing areas. Our area is just covered with edible plants, you just have to know what your looking for and whats in season.
    It's a good idea to roam the area you're going or transitioning through to your BOL, to know you can identify what natures pantry has provided. Would be worth your time to find out if your state has the same booklets.

    • That would be nice. I have not seen them personally in Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, or Michigan; not that they aren't there. Alot of the state parks have even lost the funding for full time naturalists that do seminars/classes. Spring Mill SP in Indiana used to have "Moccasin Mile" that they taught you medicinal and edible plants, along with poisonous ones, on a hike.

    • I'm a big fan of both the Petersen and Smithsonian Guides series. Big, fat paperback reference books full of pictures and descriptions of edibles, medicinal erbs, birds, fish, etc by US region.
      A bit heavy to carry, but worth it.

    • It's called "dis-information" and its to give a false sense of security while being gutted. Gives the SOB's time to get things in place before they corrale you and yours to a FEMA CAMP. It also empowers the enemy to allow you to think they're on your side, things are getting better because of they say so. Until one day you wake up and find you no longer have a savings acct., or allowed to have more than 3 days of food for your family, or not allowed to leave your house or area. IT'S ABOUT CONTROL MARK!!!! look up obama's hording law.
      Prepare for food and gas rationing and re-settlement. DOES THAT SOUND FAMILIAR?? ATTUNG, ATTUNG!! COMINZEE HERE YOU RIGHT WING TROUBLE MAKER. YOU JUDE'

  17. This is an excellent rundown of the issues: Exactly the kind of content I come here for. I have a lot to learn and the section on traps was very helpful in identifying what I need to know. I am best at fishing, but the limb lines and cane poles suggestions are good advice and a new idea for me.

    I feel better equipped just knowing WHAT it is I need to learn about.

    • Snares are worth their weight in platinum, IMO. You can take any sized animal you need or want to. Store bought snares are usually equipped with a "stop" to keep from catching deer, but homemade ones do not need to incorporate this item for survival. I do not snare big game, but it is an option in a true survival situation. Learn drowning rigs for near water sets. These not only dispatch the animal, but also will help keep your catch out of sight if anyone else in your AO (Area of Operations), especially if they are unfriendly.

  18. A big part of survival-eating is survival-cooking. You may not have a lot of choice in what you get to cook/eat.

    WAYYYY back in the '70's (when National Lampoon was still funny) they published an article called "Stoned Games" for heavy marjiuana-smokers with the 'munchies'.One of the suggestions still has a use as a survival-camping exercise. Go camping with some friends. Tell them "pick something you want to eat this weekend" Get their choices, and whatever is directly above that item in the grocery store.. Can you make a dish of them together and not make anyone sick?

    Your survival pantry may get limited/strange. Can you deal?

  19. Read the book called "Hatchet". I read it while I was in Highschool and still remember details about the boys struggles and learned how not to do things. Great book about a boy who's plane crashes in the wilderness and is forced to survive alone until his rescue. One tip is how to learn which berries are poisonous by trying VERY tiny bits or watching what the animals eat, he learned the hard way, very detailed and very gripping.

  20. just a side note. i have come to learn that fish entrails and oils will attrack just about every furbearing animal in north america. recycling your unusable fish parts will greatly enhance your success with your trapping. i try to make it a point to carry sardines in my woods wandering bag.
    not only do you have lunch for yourself, but you have attractant for traps as well. give it a try.

    • Catching shad, carp and other fish most people don't eat is a great way to get this very bait. Carp is great as it is very oily. Cut the fish down to small pieces and place in a clean mayo jar (put some small holes in led to keep pressure down) and set in the sun. As the fish decays, it will leave a nice gooey oil to be used for bait. It's also a good "chore" for the younger family members and allows them to fish instead of playing video games.

  21. A frequently overlooked method of fishing that–for me, anyway–ALWAYS assures SOME kind of catch, is trotlining. First–be sure it's legal not only in your state, but also whether or not it's restricted in any waters. This won't matter much, in a survival situation, but practice makes perfect–so perfect this skill BEFORE you need it. I like the Magic Bait line of trotlines, as each individual hook-bearing line is attached with spring-steel clips to the main staging line, and removed and replaced easily–no tangles like you get with traditional, cheaper trotline designs. You can get these on eBay (or Walmart) for about $10-12.00, and have a trotline that a first-timer can use flawlessly. For bait, I NEVER use stinkbaits or any other weird or exotic stuff. I have used chicken livers wrapped in pantyhose or similar material, and SMALL crayfish, torn in half. Because the hooks are fairly large (2/0) only large catfish can take the bait. Where legal, I use a can of meat-based dogfood for chum. I just punch holes in the top and bottom of the can, and toss it into the drink about 50 yards upstream from my line. The taste of the dogfood washes downstream, and the fish come to investigate. Check your line every 12 hours, and harvest. When done fishing, remove the individual hook lines from the main line as you pull it in. I keep the styrofoam block that the trotline comes with, to bury the hooks into for storage–just be sure that you let your line dry COMPLETELY before storing, so it doesn't rot over time. Rotten lines break. Contrary to conventional "wisdom", you NEVER need to skin catfish. Because the ones you get on a trotline are large, just slit them down the back, along the spine, and carefully trim the filets away from the ribs. Toss the rest of the fish–or use it for cut bait. To cook over coals, place the filets skin side down on the grill. When the skin has shriveled and blackened, the flesh–which will be flaky when done–slips easily away from the skin. For more tips, visit

    • Leonard, thanks for the comment. I agree with trotlines/limblines. I think the names just change from where you are from…lol.

  22. I run alot of traps and set foot hold traps where my dog can't get to them, like in the edge of the water for racoons and beaver ect….I can set the coniber traps up on the bank and Gypsie (my dog) is smart enough to know what they are and not to touch them after she jumped one and caught her tail in it. For fox , coyote, and bobcat, I have taught her to stay at the vehicle. I tan the hides for rugs,gloves,jackets, anything I need leather for. I eat the meat, and my dog gets the left overs. If a person has a dog in a survival situation, it learns really fast when to and not to follow it's human. Snares and dead falls are no problem for us either. She knows it's like a dangerous easter egg hunt, she sniffs the triggered trap and barks if it has caught something. If it is still open, she walks way around it and looks for signs and sniffs the trail. I also have used fishing yoyos as snares by making a loop of steel wire an connecting it to the swivel, workslike a spring loaded snare on squirrels and rabbits.

    • Hillbilly, thanks for the comment and the added ideas of the yoyo's. It's great to be able to carry 1 piece of gear and have several ways to utilize it depending on the situation.

  23. I live in Arizona in the mountains, we got pine trees and cacti in the same place. Here’s a delicious (not) recipe I learned one day when I forgot to bring rations on my daily hike:

    First pick out a nice juicy looking cactus
    Light a fire and place the cactus directly on fire
    Make sure to burn off all the spikes!
    Slice open and enjoy that delicious cactus meat!
    Mmmm bitter as always…
    And those @ssholes I brought with me had fricken sugar coated chocolate Granola bars with like 500 calories each… Pricks

  24. This will sound crazy, but only 100 years ago, backwoodsmen said that the very best meat they had ever eaten was mountain lion. The second best was dog. In a true survival situation, raising cats and dogs for (gasp!!) their meat may be easier and more viable than trying to find cattle or chickens, especially in an urban environment.

  25. LOL – well, I've certainly never paid actual money for a snare trap! I wasn't even aware they were mass produced anywhere. by the way, that trick with the 2 liter from the Fish Trap section? anyone who's ever lived in Florida knows that as a great way to eliminate mosquito's too:

    1) buy a 2 Liter of Sprite or some other citrus-like soda
    2) drink all but the last inch or so from the bottom of bottle
    3) cut away top funnel of bottle and throw away cap
    4) leave standing up-right and flip funnel up-side down
    5) insert funnel into top down into bottle and tape securely

    That's it. The skeeters smell the delicious beverage and crawl inside, then they're inferior special reasoning capabilities fail them when they're only concept of escape directs them to "fly up"

  26. I try to get a lot of my preps from Costco. Yes it can be expensive, but if you set a budget to maybe just buy one extra case or bag of something each trip, you will have a large supply rather quickly. You can get #10 cans of food, bulk sacks of rice, flour, sugar, and salt.
    Another great place is your local LDS home storage center. first off I want to state that I am not affiliated with the Mormon church and I am not trying to get you to join them. what I am telling you as these people have been prepping for years and are more than willing to share with everyone. You don’t need to be a Mormon to go to theses centers.

  27. Survival eating? How about Long pork, wingless chicken, that's right, humanoids! Seven billion plus on this planet now! Easy to lure in, mass-produced, mostly dumb-as-a-rock, slow runners, self-sustainable! Okay, I'm half kidding, but who knows, cannabolism has been practiced for probably as long as man has walked up-right, maybe longer! Besides you might actually 'like' your neighbor for a change!

  28. Great Article, Regulator5. Having nearly 50 years of extensive hunting, fishing, trapping, and general outdoor experience, I agree with most of what you say. Bow and arrows and slingshots (wristrockets) are not recommended often enough as valuable survival gear. About the only thing I don't agree with you on here is your recommended caliber of rifle. While I realize this a controversial topic subject much to personal preference and circumstance, I believe that more times than not, a .22 or even a .223 is a better choice.
    I live in a rather remote area of Montana, and have been a Big Game Hunting and Fishing Guide and Outfitter for 25 years, so I am quite proficient at harvesting protein, and if (when) SHTF, I will try to stick it out here on my property. If for some reason I am forced to leave and go mobile, especially if on foot or horseback, the only weapons I plan to carry is a breakdown .22, wrist rocket, longbow (the compound is too heavy and delicate) and a dozen snares in two different sizes. A hundred .22 shells weigh less and take up less room than 20 .308 cartridges, and is quite capable of killing large animals such as deer and elk – just get close and shoot straight. My biggest weakness is lack of knowledge about edible plants in these here hills – just been hard to find the time to educate myself. Anyway, thanks again – I will be checking back for more of your blogs!

  29. Great information you have provided. I am in the process of learning how to live off the land if need be. A friend of mine bought a book about how our ancestors lived without the modern luxuries we have today and totally intrigued me into the what ifs of something happening.


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